This Day in History (13-Feb-1633) – Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for trial after publishing his thoughts on heliocentrism

Galileo used his mathematics knowledge and technical skills to  build a telescope in 1609.  Galileo’s observations strengthened his belief in Copernicus’ theory (published in 1514)that Earth and all other planets revolve around the Sun. Galileo expected the telescope to quickly make believers in the Copernican system out of all educated persons, but he was disappointed. The Catholic Church, which was very powerful and influential in Galileo’s day, strongly supported the theory of a geocentric, or Earth-centered, universe. In 1616, on orders of the Pope Paul V, Cardinal Bellarmine called Galileo to his residence and administered a warning not to hold or defend the Copernican theory; Galileo was also forbidden to discuss the theory orally or in writing. After repeated convincing attempts by Galileo, Pope Urban VIII allowed him to write about the Copernican theory as long as he treated it as a mathematical hypothesis.

In 1630 he completed his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in which the Ptolemaic and Copernican models were discussed and compared. Vatican cleared (conditionally) to publish the book. The book was printed in 1632 which was quickly sold out and soon became the talk of the literary public. Enemies of Galileo had convinced the Pope that the Dialogue was nothing but a thinly-veiled brief for the Copernican model. Pope Urban VIII, convinced by the arguments of various Church officials, stopped its distribution; the case was referred to the Inquisition and Galileo was summoned to Rome despite his infirmities, to answer the charges in February 1633. Old Galileo travelled for twenty-three days in cold winter from Florence to Rome.

He was formally interrogated for 18 days and on April 30 Galileo confessed that he may have made the Copernican case in the Dialogue too strong and offered to refute it in his next book.  Galileo was sentenced to life imprisonment. Because of his age and poor health, he was allowed to serve his imprisonment under house arrest until his death in 1642. The Church finally accepted that Galileo might be right in 1983.

 

Reference:

http://www.mapsofworld.com/on-this-day/february-13-1945-royal-air-force-bombers-take-off-for-the-first-raids-in-the-fire-bombing-of-dresden

http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level2/galileo.html

http://physics.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node52.html

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/galileo/galileoaccount.html

This Day in History (22-Jan-1506) – The Swiss Guards Arrive at the Vatican

Centuries ago, the Swiss Cantons had about 500,000 inhabitants and formed an overpopulated country, where, because of the precarious economic conditions of the times, there was much poverty. There was no choice but to emigrate and one of the most profitable jobs was that of a mercenary soldier abroad. There were some 15,000 men available for this type of work which was “organized” and controlled by the small Confederation of Cantons. They were the best troops of those times. Without cavalry and with little artillery, they had invented a tactic of movement that was superior to all others.

Pope Sixtus IV made alliance in 1497 with the Confederates, which foresaw the possibility of recruiting mercenaries, and he had barracks built for them. Later, renewing the old pact, Innocent VIII (1484-1492) also desired to make use of them against the Duke of Milan. January 22nd, 1506, is the official date of birth of the Pontifical Swiss Guard, as on that day, towards the evening, a group of one hundred and fifty Swiss soldiers commanded by Captain Kasparvon Silenen, of Canton Uri, passed through the Porta del Popolo and entered for the first time the Vatican, where they were blessed by Pope Julius II.

On the morning of May 6th, 1527, Captain General Bourbon launched a series of attacks on Rome. The Spanish mercenaries broke through the Torrione Gate. The Swiss Guard, standing firm resisted desperately. Their Captain, Kaspar Röist was wounded, and later killed by the Spaniards. Of the 189 Swiss Guards, only 42 survived, the ones who, when all was lost, under the command of Hercules Göldli guarded Pope Clement VII’s retreat to safety in Castel Sant’Angelo.

Tradition continues and today the tiny force is responsible for the Pope’s safety, including the security of the Apostolic Palace, and acts as the de facto armed forces of Vatican City, the world’s tiniest sovereign state. The 130 members of the Swiss Guard are required to be Catholic, unmarried Swiss citizens who have completed Swiss military service. They need to be at least 5ft 8in tall and between the ages of 19 and 30. The papal Swiss Guard tradition has been marching on for nearly 500 years — making it the oldest, continually active military corps in history.

Reference:

http://www.mapsofworld.com/on-this-day/january-22-1506-the-swiss-guards-arrive-at-the-vatican

http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/swiss_guard/swissguard/storia_en.htm

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/vaticancityandholysee/8873853/A-history-of-the-Vaticans-Swiss-Guard.html

http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/swiss.htm