Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) was founded by Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, a physician living in the Nagpur, as a part of the movement against British rule and as a response to rioting between Hindus and Muslims. Dr. Hedgewar, who had got his education in the Calcutta Medical College had been a part of the Anushilan Samiti and Yugantar and was a nationalist by heart. He became a member of Indian National Congress initially but left it soon and established RSS. The idea was to train the Hindu youths so that they unite the Hindu Community and make India an Independent undivided country. He was much influenced by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and adopted his ideals.
Dr. Hedgewar announced on Vijayadasami day, 27 September 1925, that “we are inaugurating the sangh today. All of us must train ourselves physically, intellectually and in every way so as to be capable of achieving our cherished goal”. Formal beginning of Sangh took place in Doctor Hedgewar’s house in Sukrawadi of Nagpur.Training in Drill, march etc. was imparted on Sundays. Uniform for this training was Khaki shirt, Khaki short, and Khaki Cap. On Thursdays and Sundays there were discourses on national affairs.
The name ‘Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’ was selected for Sangh on 17 April 1926. Daily meetings – Nitya Shakhas – were started at Mohitewada ground in Nagpur on 28th May. Lathi -Danda – was introduced in the shakha. New commands Daksha, Arama were used for the first time in shakhas. The tradition of commencing the daily activities with salutation to the Bhagawa Dhwaj and concluding with the Prayer – Prarthana – in Hindi and Marathi was instituted.
First route march – patha sanchalan – was held with 30 participants.
In March 1928 First ceremony of initiation – Pratigna – was conducted. In a meeting on 9, 10 Nov.1929 held at Doke Math, Nagpur, Doctorji was designated as the Chief [Sarsangh chalak]. In 1930 Black cap was introuduced as a part of uniform in place of Khaki cap. RSS possess around 4.5million members, has a well structured hierarchical order and is very active in social causes.